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CODAR Currents Newsletter Spring 2009
Measuring the World and Beyond
Dubai Municipality & DOME International LLC Using SeaSondes to Measure Currents & Waves From Palm Jumeriah to Port Rashid along the Dubai Coast.

Dubai Municipality & DOME International LLC Using SeaSondes to Measure Currents & Waves From Palm Jumeriah to Port Rashid along the Dubai Coast.
Image shows Dubai coastline and impressive offshore man-made islands: The Palm Jumeriah development (shown at image bottom) and The World Islands development (shown at image center). SeaSonde-produced 2-D surface current vectors are shown surrounding The World archipelago.

Click image to enlarge
Located inside the Arabian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula, Dubai is home to some of the new millennium’s boldest engineering construction projects. Records are being made here, with projects such as The Palm Islands that are the largest man-made islands in the world. The latest project, named “The World” is an archipelago of 300 manmade islands laid out in the shape of an earth map. These “resort islands”, located just a few km offshore, will support multi-million dollar dwellings and vacation amenities. Constructed primarily with dredged sand, and positioned with very little spacing between each, understanding water flow dynamics and sediment transport is critical.

The Dubai Municipality (DM) established in 1954 is responsible for city planning and infrastructure upkeep, including development, public health and environmental affairs. Decisions made by the DM today relating to the new island development projects will have longlasting effects on this emirate. Given the gravity of their duties, DM is utilizing the most advanced technologies and expert consultants to help them in the responsibilities they are charged with regarding coast stabilization. The application of state of the art monitoring and modeling tools was identified by the Dubai Municipality as a vehicle for developing an understanding of the prevailing coastal processes and effects of coastal line changes. One of the main aims of the project is to enhance the existing Dubai Coastal Zone Monitoring Program which has been running since 2002 using a variety of technologies monitoring natural processes in the coastal zone. In 2008 the DM Coastal Zone and Waterways Management Section contracted with the company DOME International LLC for implementing a SeaSonde network to continuously monitor the waves and currents along their coastline. System installation and commissioning was completed in December 2008. The outputs of the project includes speed and direction of the sea surface currents in a meticulous manner and also the period, significant height and dominant direction of waves. SeaSonde data outputs are correlating extremely well with other available sensor data from the area, and are revealing the region 2-D dynamics. Data will soon be posted regularly on the DM’s official web site: www.dubaicoast.ae.
INSIDE THIS ISSUE

Measuring the World and Beyond
SeaSondes® in Dubai
Measuring currents & waves surrounding The World islands from Palm Jumeriah to Port Rashid.

Multi-static Enhancement
for SeaSonde Networks

CODAR-patented technology brings new excitement to HF radar network possibilities.

Pushing the Range of Your SeaSonde
Hardware augmentations to extend network coverage are presented.

The Basque Country Coastal HF Radar System
A SeaSonde network is used inside real-time observing system monitoring waves and surface currents inside the Bay of Biscay.

Protecting the SeaSonde from Lightning & Other Electrical Surges
An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.

Tech Tip
Does virus check software make a healthy computer?

Software News
Release 6 coming soon!


Upcoming Events

Recommended Reads
Dome International LLC

Dome International LLC, with 10 offices in the Middle East Region, is a leading health, safety and environment consultancy firm inside the UAE.
SeaSonde antennas in Dubai
SeaSonde antennas in Dubai

Click images to enlarge
SeaSonde antennas in Dubai
 
Correlation between Umm Suqueim tide station and CODARtotal vector currents from DMRS and UMMS Wave plots of DMRS CODAR data (top) and JOB ADCP wave data
Correlation between Umm Suqueim tide station and CODAR
total vector currents from DMRS and UMMS.
Wave plots of DMRS CODAR data (top)
and JOB ADCP wave data on 17 Dec. 2008
(obtained from Dubai Municipality website).

All Data Shown Are Provided Courtesy of Dubai Municipality & DOME International LLC.

Enhancing SeaSonde Networks with Bistatic / Multi-Static™ Functionality

M ulti-Static function is a straightforward augmentation that will allow expanded and improved current-mapping coverage inside a SeaSonde network. This patented technique has been under development at CODAR for over ten years and is now available for commercial release. The subsequent sections describe the technology and how it can be used to enhance both new and existing SeaSonde networks Defining Monostatic & Bistatic Every SeaSonde, and all other commercial ocean observing HF radars, are backscatter -- or monostatic -- radars. This means transmitter and receiver are co-located together. When the transmitter is positioned away from the receiver by tens of kilometers, this unconventional variation is called “bistatic”. The Bistatic Geometry Made Simple A backscatter radar measures observables like currents in a polar coordinate system. Contours of constant time delay are range circles about the radar. Doppler shift from the transmitted frequency gives a velocity component along bearing spokes from the radar, and these are called “radials”, i.e., perpendicular to a radial circle. A bistatic radar measures observables in an elliptical coordinate system, where constant time delay contours of the echo are ellipses. This family of ellipses has the transmitter and receiver locations as the ellipse focal points. Doppler shift gives a component of velocity that falls on hyperbolas passing perpendicular through the ellipses. These velocities are referred to as “ellipticals”. The measurements below illustrate radials and ellipticals measured off the coast of New Jersey with a bistatic-enhanced SeaSonde.

Click image to enlarge
"radials" and "ellipticals" for a New Jersey-sited 25-MHz SeaSonde with a buoy-mounted bistatic transmitter
An example of "radials" and "ellipticals" for a New Jersey-sited 25-MHz SeaSonde
with a buoy-mounted bistatic transmitter is shown. These are measured and processed simultaneously.

Why Bistatic Radars Are Uncommon in HF Ocean Observing
In any radar, the transmit signal must be coherent with the receiver signal.That’s easy when they are together, because thesame signal source can be used for both. When they are separated, accurate frequencyand time synchronization is thedrawback. CODAR invented and patented a methodology based on GPS timing alongwith CODAR’s unique, patentedFMCW (frequency-modulated continuous wave) gated signals to control the exactsweep time of multiple transmittersdown to nanoseconds so all transmitters can occupy the exact same frequency channel.This enables a single receiveantenna to process unambiguously signals scattered from multiple transmitters.The signals from various transmitters areidentified and separated in the demodulation phase.

Defining Multi-Static: Simultaneous Monostatic & BistaticOperation
Bistatic wouldn’t have significant value if a network still ended up withthe same quantity of data, the only noticeabledifference being that transmitters and receivers are separated from each other(switching from monostatic to bistatic).However, this is not the end of the process; With the CODAR-patented methods,one receiver can see its own backscatterechoes and produce radial maps, and can also see those signals from several otherappropriately placed transmitters andprocess each of those transmitter signals to produce ellipticals, a! at exactlythe same time (not sequentially by on/offswitching). This is called “Multi-Static”. It can both extend coverageand increase data density inside monitoring area.

The Bottom Line: Benefits of Multi-Static Function
Click images to enlarge
Coverage and quality of four backscatter Long-Range SeaSondes off the coast of New Jersey Enhancement obtained by adding a transmitter on a buoy 150 km offshore, operating multi-statically with the four SeaSondes on the left
Coverage and quality of four backscatter Long-Range SeaSondes off the coast of New Jersey. Dark red indicates best quality of total vectors; yellow going to white indicates poor or no coverage. Enhancement obtained by adding a transmitter on a buoy 150 km offshore, operating multi-statically with the four SeaSondes on the left. Higher quality (darker color) and greater coverage area are the result.

One can expect an extension in coveragearea. This can vary between 30% (e.g.,where only the existing coastal SeaSonderadar transmitters are used) up to 100% if stand-alone bistatic transmittersare judiciously placed (along coast, on buoys,islands or offshore structures). CODAR staff have tools to help predict and optimizethis coverage based on your existingor proposed network. One can expect more robust, accurate current vectors, andfewer gaps within the existing coveragearea. More measurements from different angles of the current field at a pointleads to a more accurate total vector. Thefigures above show an example where a buoy transmitter is added to augment anexisting four-SeaSonde coastal network offNew Jersey. Here the coverage area has more than doubled, and the darker shadingdenotes more accurate totalvector mapping.

Transmit Sources For Bistatic / Multi-Static Networks
Scenario #1: Utilizing Transmit Signals from Other SeaSonde Remote Units
A transmitter from one conventional, backscatter SeaSonde remote unit can bethe source for bistatic echoes for any of theother nearby SeaSonde receivers (inside a different SeaSonde remote unit). Ifa network of overlapping backscatterSeaSondes is already in place, producing total vector maps among them -- andthey have our GPS-assisted timing packagecalled “SHARE” -- this can be the foundation of a Multi-Static network.In this case, without adding any additionalhardware the SeaSonde network can be converted into a Multi-Static network byinstalling CODAR’s new Multi-Staticsignal processing software package at some or all of the receiver stations insidenetwork. For example, four adjacentbackscatter SeaSondes can be converted into as many as ten Multi-Static echosources for the same patches of sea.

Scenario #2: Adding Stand-alone Bistatic Transmitters to a SeaSonde Network
As orientation between transmitters and receivers affects the bistatic coveragearea, there can be benefit to placingadditional transmitter(s) at strategic locations. The stand-alone bistatic transmittersoffered by CODAR consist of atransmitter, transmit antenna, and an Iridium communication link for simple remotecontrol of transmitter. These unitscost less than a complete SeaSonde Remote Unit and require less space and infrastructure,allowing operation inside aneven wider variety of environments. The fact that there is no receive antennareduces siting constraints. Absence of acomputer and receive system lowers the overall power requirement significantly(the bistatic transmitter and Iridium linkrequire approximately 100 watts power total). Refer to SeaSonde Bistatic TransmitterProduct Information Sheet forfurther details.

What Is Needed?
If this is an existing SeaSonde backscatter network outfitted with SHARE technology, it needs only software to convert into a Multi-static network: one software package for for each receiver (SeaSonde remote unit) that is to receive bistatic echoes from any number of transmitters. This software package will be configured and keyed to that single receiver. For example, suppose one SeaSonde remote unit is to receive echoes from three other coastal SeaSonde remote unit transmitters, you need only one software package for that receiving SeaSonde remote unit and it can produce one set of radials and two or three sets of ellipticals. Additional software packages are required for each additional receiver that will be processing data bistatically or multi-statically inside the network. CODAR staff can help select which SeaSonde remote unit transmitters will work best with others in the vicinity, with a special visualization code. This shows the expansion in coverage area, as well as the increase in robustness within the existing backscatter map region. One may consider stand-alone transmitters along with the existing or proposed coastal network. These bistatic transmitters could be on buoys, on an offshore platform or island, or at a coastal point. Again, CODAR staff can help decide if and where such an option might be desirable, using the visualization code mentioned above. In this case, it will be necessary to purchase the additional bistatic transmitter hardware, while the need for receiver Bistatic/Multi-static data processing software packages remains the same. Contact CODAR for further details.




Rutgers University & CODAR team preparing to
deploy a buoy-mounted 5 MHz bistatic transmitter off
New Jersey coast.


SeaSonde bistatic transmitter mounted onto buoy off New Jersey coast
Shown here is SeaSonde bistatic transmitter mounted onto buoy off New Jersey coast.
 

Pushing the Range of Your SeaSonde
Hardware configuration options to expand the observable range of your SeaSonde, potentially beyond 300 km

Operating Frequency
One easy way to achieve greater range is to operate at a lower frequency band. This has been known for decades, and is the reason CODAR engineers designed the SeaSonde for operation across a wide band, ranging from 4.4 MHz up to 50 MHz. The lowest of the SeaSonde transmit frequency bands (within 4.4 - 6 MHz) allows for greater ranges than the higher bands without any increase in radiated power. In general, the average daytime observable range achieved by a SeaSonde operating near 4-6 MHz (“Long-Range” mode) is typically 160-220 km. Actual coverage varies on many factors, such as exact antenna placement, sea conditions, external noise as well as some user-selectable software settings.

SeaSonde twin transmit antennas & receive antennas at Bodega Bay, CA
click image to enlarge
Twin Transmit Antennas
Another method for increasing observable range is adding a second transmit (TX)antenna. A single monopole antenna exhibits a uniform, omnidirectional transmitsignal pattern, meaning that the radiated power is equally distributed across360 degrees-- including sections over land. The simple addition of a second transmitantenna allows for “beam control” and through proper orientation & phasingthe antennas can direct more power transmitter signal power out towards sea.It is most common for this configuration to be used on the lower SeaSonde bands(5-14 MHz), but is possible at any frequency. This hardware configuration optionis available when ordering a new SeaSonde Remote Unit or as a retrofit. The officialname is Twin Transmit Antenna Configuration.

The directionality of the beam fan produced by the TX antenna pair can be controlledby adjusting the spacing between the two elements. Spacing the two elements closertogether will cause the signal strength to “fan out”, so that thepower is spread across a wider angle. As the two antennas are pulled apart, theresulting beam pattern becomes narrower, sending a stronger signal out towardsa more specific angular sector. This produces even greater range, but insidea narrower angle sector. The antenna spacing (and hence the TX beam fan spread)is customized at the radar site and optimized for that SeaSonde user’sgoals.
SeaSonde twin transmit antennas & receive antennas at Bodega Bay, CA
SeaSonde Coverage to 334 km Shown


The odd-shaped Vermilion 31A oil platform, nearly 1000 meters long, had plenty of space for the Long-Range twin TX antennas and receive antenna.
The odd-shaped Vermilion 31A oil platform, nearly 1000 meters long, had plenty of space for the Long- Range twin TX antennas and receive antenna.

Total vector current map produced by combining the Vermilion & Southwest Pass radials, extending to 334 km offshore.
Total vector current map produced by combining the Vermilion & Southwest Pass radials, extending to 334 km offshore.

SeaSonde antennas at Southwest Pass were installed in marshland only accessible by boat.
SeaSonde antennas at Southwest Pass were installed in marshland only accessible by boat.
Dual Transmitter - Twin Transmit
Antenna Configuration forMaximum Range

A third way to extend range is to increase theTX radiated power. However, when it comesto increasing power, one quickly reaches thepoint of diminishing returns on investment.The SeaSonde transmitter output power is 40watts average, which is low and also highlypractical from a design and results perspective.Increasing the output power of a singletransmit power supply creates more internalheat, placing more wear on itself and othernearby parts inside the transmitter chassis.Hence these other parts, including heat sinks,must be upgraded to perform under thisgreater heat stress. This drives the price of aradar up to an uncomfortable cost level.Instead of increasing power from a single transmitter, CODAR offers a more practicalsolution --that is addition of a second transmitter. This SeaSondeRemote Unit configuration is referred to as SeaSondeDual Transmitter - Twin Transmit AntennaConfiguration. In this setup, two transmitters areconnected to a set of twin TX antennas. This doublingof the transmit power and the focusing its beam outtowards sea can make a dramatic difference in daytimeobservable range, extending it by as much as 90 km. Toput this into perspective, the range increase is the sameas would result from a single transmitter with a singleantenna that had its power increased from 40 to nearly200 watts.A deployment of the special configuration units severalyears ago in the Gulf of Mexico had radars positioned atbottom of the Southwest Pass in Louisiana and on an oilplatform to the west. Daytime average observableranges for these units consistently stayed above 240 kmand at times the Southwest Pass radar unit had ranges upto 340 km were reached.


Data from a Long-Range SeaSonde unit operating in Bodega, California

Data Produced by Long-Range SeaSonde

A demonstration of range improvement was conducted in September 2008. Data from a Long-Range SeaSonde unit operating in Bodega, California is shown here. Normal range of this unit is 170-190 km (shown above). When the system hardware is modified to Long-Range SeaSonde with the dual transmitter - twin TX antenna configuration the current maps extend out past 300 km in certain sectors.

System hardware is modified to Long-Range SeaSonde with the dual transmitter - twin TX antenna configuration the current maps extend out past 300 km in certain sectors.
Data Produced byDual TX- Twin TX Antenna
Long-Range SeaSonde


The Operational Oceanography system in the Basque Country consists of two main elements: an intensive ocean-observing network, together with meteorological and oceanographic modeling tools. These elements are able to provide, on a routine basis, the most precise description of the present Sea State as well as the forecasting of the ocean conditions. The Ocean Observing System includes six coastal meteorological platforms (operational since 2004) and two ocean-meteorological buoys, operating since 2007. In the general framework of a Coastal Oceanography System in the Basque Country (Northeastern Spain), the Directorate of Meteorology and Climate of the Basque Country Government contracted to Qualitas Instruments S.A. in 2008 the turnkey installations of a Long-Range SeaSonde network. The main purpose is to improve the real-time monitoring of the surface currents and waves in the Bay of Biscay Area. Euskalmet
Herria Un Pais
Qualitas Remos
Distribution of the coastal and marine observing platforms of theBasque Meteorological Office (Euskalmet).
Distribution of the coastal and marine observing platforms of the Basque Meteorological Office (Euskalmet).
The coastal Long-Range SeaSonde radar stations were installed during year 2008 and have become operational at the beginning of 2009. The final aim of the coastal radar system is the integration of the radar data into the Operational Oceanography network in this important marine region.
The utility of the coastal HF radars for the real time monitoring of the oceanographic conditions will be of fundamental importance in the framework of the Interregional European Project LOREA (Littoral, Ocean and Rivers in Euskadi- Aquitaine), which envisions a very ambitious real-time observing system adapted for the study of the Marine Dynamics in the coastal zone and its interactions with the littoral and the rivers. During year 2009 studies of Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA/QC) of the HF radar data will be performed in order to incorporate these data into operational tools developed in LOREA as local applications of water quality, beach dynamics, and mitigation of marine pollution (oil spill forecasting, etc.).

Basque SeaSonde Configuration
The HF radar system in the Basque country consists of two Long- Range SeaSonde Remote Units and a Central Management / Data Combining Station. One radar unit is located in Cape Matxitxako, and the second in Cape Higer, separated a distance of 80 Km. The combine site computer is located in the town of Vitoria in the headquarters of the Meteorological Basque service (Euskalmet). Both radar stations work in a frequency centered at 4.86 MHz and a bandwidth of 40 kHz, resulting in a radial resolution of 4 km and a maximum range of ~200 Km.

Data Outputs
Each remote site communicates on line with the Central Management Station via Broadband Wireless Access (WIMAX), maintained and operated by the Basque Met office. The resulting total surface vectors images are distributed in real time basis for the general public in the Meteorological Web: http://www.euskalmet.euskadi.net/s07-5853x/es/meteorologia/ selsensorB.apl?e=5&COD_ESTACION=R097. Shown on preceding page is an example of the range and the spatial coverage of radar measurements, as well as the kind of oceanographic structures captured by the radar. Note the general cyclonic structure of the surface circulation measured by the radar system.
First Results: High waves in the big storm of 20-24 January 2009
During the days from 23rd to 25th of January 2009, a few days after launch of the formal operation of the radar by the Basque authorities, an anomalous deep atmospheric cyclone affected severely the northern Iberian Peninsula. An abrupt surface air pressure fall of more than 35 hPa was measured at a latitude corresponding to northern Spain, causing winds speed of more than 190 km/h measured at Matxitxako Cape. This resulted in a severe-storm sea state with significant wave heights more than 12 m. At this point, the radar HF station in Matxitxako measured this significant wave height of 12 m, as can be seen in above below. Note that the buoy at Matxitxaco Cape also observed this maximum at around 06:00 of January 24th (not shown). Even though the radar wave measurement is slightly below the ocean buoy record, this is thus far the maximum record for significant wave heights in the history of CODAR SeaSondes.


CODAR wave measurements averaged over a ring at 10 Km radius centered at the Matxitxaco radar station.
CODAR wave measurements averaged over a ring at 10 Km radius centered at the Matxitxaco radar station. Note the red curve showing a 12m significant height at 06:00 AM.


Protecting the SeaSonde from Lightning and Other Electrical Surges
The occurrence of lightning striking SeaSonde antennas is extremely low. However, the statistics vary geographically and even a small risk exists at any coastal HF radar location. Some may ask, "what can be done to prevent the antenna from being struck by lightning". Unfortunately there are no devices that can prevent a strike on the antennas without disrupting their normal performance. There might be some very sophisticated antenna protection system that may not negatively affect the antennas, but these expensive designs cost more than the price of entire SeaSonde unit and still can offer no guarantees.

All SeaSondes are equipped with some lightning protection built into the transmitter chassis and the receive antenna (shown below). The purpose of these devices is to minimize the effects of a lightning strike upon the more expensive parts of SeaSonde electronics if an antenna is hit.

First layer of SeaSonde lightning protection




Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) Power Conditioning Unit (CODAR Product Code UPS1500)
CODAR Product Code UPS1500

The SeaSonde Extended Lightning Protection Kit, CODAR Product Code LT-E1, (shown below) is an optional secondary lightning protection package set in a small weatherproof housing (mountable either indoors or outdoors) intended to provide one additional layer of electronics protection. It uses the same gas discharge tube method on all transmit and receive cables connected to the electronics. It is not a guarantee against damage but is another technology that may help protect the electronics chassis (if either antenna or antenna cables take a direct hit).


Protecting the SeaSonde from Lightning and Other Electrical Surges
CODAR Product Code LT-E1
Power coming to SeaSonde should be buffered via an Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) Power Conditioning Unit (CODAR Product Code UPS1500). A UPS connecting the SeaSonde unit to its power source (e.g. wall plug) will provide a layer of protection to electronics against power surges that come from power line. They also allow for continued quality performance through power fluctuations (sometimesreferred to as "brownouts"). UPS devices are small investments withbig rewards.

Consult CODAR Support Team for additional details on protection technology andhow these may be best utilized inside your SeaSonde network.


Tech Tips

Does Virus Check Software Make a Healthy Computer?

There is probably not a day that goes by in which we all receive emails or read web articles that alert us of the serious threat of lethal computer viruses. Many of these are sales blurbs attempting to scare us into buying their virus detector or special protection software packages. For those wondering what they should be doing to protect their SeaSonde computers from viruses, here is a little background and a few tips:

There are NO OS X worms or viruses. Two years ago there was one infectious agent thought to have been a virus which turned out to be a trojan hidden inside a jpg file. It was short-lived though and is no longer viable. The only known still-living exception to this is the Microsoft MS Word Macro virus that only affects .doc files, is more of an “annoyance” than an “ attack”, and not relevant to SeaSonde systems.

We recommend using your computer’s Software Update to keep up-to-date-- for one never knows when a real virus threat might happen. However, we do not advise putting any virus check software on the SeaSonde computers as it causes problems due to the extra load on the file system. Norton seems to do a fine job of keeping computers from running properly, so please do not use Norton. In order for any virus, worm, trojan detector to perform its intended job it needs to be constantly updated with the latest known list of threats and is always just a “little behind” the newest threats.

We also recommend setting the firewall on with the stealth mode. This keeps the computer from being bothered by web crawlers trying to ssh their way in.

Some web links will redirect an unsuspecting web surfer to trojan horses which try to trick the user into downloading and running malicious software. There was one web link a year ago which asked the user to download a video codec that instead redirected Safari to fake web sites in order to steal your online passwords. There are a number of trojans out there which are intended to capture your keystrokes or redirect your web browsing. While anyone can be tricked, these are usually pretty obvious and are not likely to happen.

There have been no SeaSonde systems affected by viruses or worms, so as long as you keep your computer’s Software Update up-to-date and set your firewall to stealth mode, you can rest easy!


Software News ~ Release 6 Coming Soon!

Set for release inside Spring 2009, Radial Suite Release 6 makes a major stride in SeaSonde software evolution. Release 6 will allow you view the site’s status, spectra, radials, waves and diagnostics from your favorite Internet browser*. Some are even connecting to the radar via this Internet-access feature using mobile phones (such as iPhone®) with a viewing screen. The Suite can be configured to send out email** alerts when software or hardware problems arise. There are a plethora of improvements to the setup, display, and processing tools***.

If you haven’t done so for several years, this may be a good time to upgradethe computers in your network. To maximize convenience, replacement computerscan be purchased through CODAR that arrive at your door correctly configuredfor SeaSonde, with Release 6 software pre-installed. Contact CODAR Support fordetails (support@codar.com).

(*Requires an incoming internet connection; **Requires internet host who allowssendmail; ***Requires OS X 10.4 or 10.5)

UPCOMING EVENTS

CODAR WILL BE EXHIBITING AT THE FOLLOWING UPCOMING EVENTS:

Ocean Business
31 March - 2 April 2009
Southampton, UK

SeaSonde Training Course
27 April - 1 May 2009
Northern California

9th RadiowaveOceanography Workshop
19-22 May 2009
Split, Croatia

Radiowave Operators Working Group (ROWG)
2-4 June 2009 Norfolk, VA
Meet CODAR engineers & many experienced SeaSonde operators at this annual event. Participation is highly recommended for persons entering the HF community.

Crissy Field SeaSonde
RECOMMENDED READING:

Saraceno, M., P. T. Strub, and P. M. Kosro (2008), Estimates of sea surface height and near-surface alongshore coastal currents from combinations of altimeters and tide gauges, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C11013, doi:10.1029/2008JC004756.

Barth, A., A. Alvera-Azcarate, and R.H. Weisberg (2008), Benefit of nesting a regional model into a largescale ocean model instead of climatology. Application to the West Florida Shelf, Continental Shelf Research, vol.28, pp.561-573.

Barrick, D.E., 30 Years of CMTC and CODAR, Current Measurement Technology, 2008. CMTC 2008. IEEE/ OES 9th Working Conference on 17-19 March 2008 Page(s):131 - 136, DOI: 10.1109/CCM.2008.4480856

Teague, C.C.; Barrick, D.E.; Lilleboe, P.M.; Cheng, R.T.; Stumpner, P.; Burau, J.R., Dual-RiverSonde Measurements of Two- Dimensional River Flow Patterns, Current Measurement Technology, 2008. CMTC 2008. IEEE/OES 9th Working Conference on 17-19 March 2008 Page(s):258 - 263, DOI: 10.1109/CCM.2008.4480877

Barth, A., A. Alvera-Azcarate, and R. H. Weisberg (2008), Assimilation of high-frequency radar currents in a nested model of the West Florida Shelf, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C08033, doi:10.1029/2007JC004585.

Cosoli, S., M. Gacic, A. Mazzoldi, Comparison between HF radar current data and moored ADCP currentmeter, Il Nuovo Cimento, vol. 28 C, No. 6, Novembre-Dicembre 2005, DOI 10.1393/ncc/i2005-10032-6.

V. Kovacevic, et al, HF radar observations in the northern Adriatic: surface current field in front of the Venetian Lagoon, Journal of Marine Systems, vol. 51 (2004), pp.95– 122, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2004.05.026.

Paduan, J.D., M. Gacic, V. Kovacevic, I. Mancero Mosquera, A. Mazzoldi, Vorticity patterns offshore of the Venetian Lagoon from HF Radar observations, 2° Workshop CO.RI.LA., S.Servolo-Venezia – “Scientific Research and Safeguarding of Venice – Results 2002” – April 2003, pp. 361-372.

Kovacevic, V., M. Gacic, I. Mancero Mosquera, A. Mazzoldi, and S. Marinetti, Current structure in front of the Lagoon of Venice as derived from the Coastal HF Radar data, 1° Workshop CO.RI.LA., S.Servolo-Venezia – “Scientific Research and Safeguarding of Venice – Results 2001”, April 2002, pp. 477-487.

Visit our company website for an extensive list of publications.
If you have any questions, please email us: CODAR Ocean Sensors logo

1914 Plymouth Street
Mountain View, CA 94043 USA
Phone: +1 (408) 773-8240
Fax: +1 (408) 773-0514
www.codar.com




  
 
 

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The SeaSonde Extended Lightning Protection Kit, CODAR Product Code LT-E1 The SeaSonde Extended Lightning Protection Kit, CODAR Product Code LT-E1